Research Question 2: What important developments in technology are missing from our list?

Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.
a. What would you list among the established developments in technology that some educational institutions are using today that arguably ALL institutions should using broadly to support or enhance teaching, learning, or creative inquiry?
b. What developments in technology that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should educational institutions be actively looking for ways to apply?
c. What are the key technologies you see developing to the point that learning-focused institutions should begin to take notice during the next four to five years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.

Brand New Topics

Artificial Intelligence
Machine learning, deep learning, neural networks are new words that are found in a university course syllabus. With coding and programming part of the math curriculum, AI needs to be a topic of discussion. IBM's Watson's and Google's Deep Mind, AI Perhaps, Virtual Assistances, drones and robotics are a part of AI. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Apr 5, 2016 Yes, Artificial Intelligence was suggested as a topic last year, if I recall correctly. It would cover Ambient Intelligence and other subtopics, such as Disintermediation, which is truly geeky-cool stuff. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 5, 2016I'm "thirding" this topic- mporter mporter Apr 10, 2016 AI as a concept is nice, but it may not come near reaching its potential until it is applied in edtech to specific and discrete student outcome goals. For example, AI applied to supporting ESL or dislexia, providing culturally responsive content and adaption, or to drop out alerting data systems - those could be exciting to see. - maria maria Apr 22, 2016 - arjana.blazic arjana.blazic May 1, 2016

This is emerging, especially as it relates to Bitcoin and virtual currency. It will be interesting to consider the implications for teaching and learning. Surprisingly or not surprisingly depending on your perspective, one of the best definitions I found was on Wikipedia, though it needs to be scrubbed and more broadly reviewed --“A block chain or blockchain is a distributed database that maintains a continuously-growing list of transaction records hardened against tampering and revision. It consists of data structure blocks—which hold exclusively data in initial blockchain implementations, and both data and programs in some of the more recent implementations—with each block holding batches of individual transactions and the results of any blockchain executables.Each block contains a timestamp and information linking it to a previous block. The block chain is seen as the main technical innovation of bitcoin, where it serves as the public ledger of all bitcoin transactions.Bitcoin is peer-to-peer, every user is allowed to connect to the network, send new transactions to it, verify transactions, and create new blocks, which is why it is called permissionless. This original design has been the inspiration for other cryptocurrencies and distributed databases.” - Sam Sam May 2, 2016

Device Management Technologies
I'm, borrowing...this from Len Scrogan. An important issue for schools. If, e.g., Apple's School Manager does half of what they say it does, it'll be great: Still a matter of choosing an MDM, though. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 8, 2016I'm interesting in location-aware device management--as more school devices go home and are used for school work, personal productivity, family productivity, and, just maybe, recreation (Netflix comes to mind), can MDM's grow in their ability to support those needs. - mporter mporter Apr 10, 2016 - len.scrogan len.scrogan Apr 11, 2016

Implantable Technologies - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 5, 2016 - mac65k mac65k Apr 8, 2016 I agree I think as our students and learning opportunities continue to evolve, we have learners who are Problem Finders and better yet, truly solutionaries Yes. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Apr 18, 2016 The whole wearable technologies area raises many possible scenarios for digital technologies in the school curriculum. The arduino lilypads and are being introduced into the Australian Digital Technologies curriculum as a means of developing computational, systems and creative thinking.- peter.lelong peter.lelong

Micro-Learning Technologies
I think Micro Learning has a place here. Creating bite sized video or snippets for supplementation or revision seems to be growing. It is beyond Mobile Learning in my opinion.- matt.harris matt.harris Apr 30, 2016- giselle.santos giselle.santos May 1, 2016Google Expedition and similar VR immersive tech have gained space in learning environments as it allows sts to explore areas they would probably not have access to.

On-Demand/Streaming Apps
Are you ready for an appless future? Has implications for everything, esp. tablets and phones. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 10, 2016- giselle.santos giselle.santos Apr 18, 2016Streaming and on-demand apps are slowly shapping the way we "curate" and consume digital media. I see lots of potential here too. - arjana.blazic arjana.blazic May 1, 2016

Combined with RQ1 - Existing Developments in Technology

Internet of Things (in education)
- adrian_lim adrian_lim May 1, 2016 Given the huge impact on the internet of things (IoT) in the current state and the huge potential it has in the near future, there is scope to have IoT ideas in schools through subject areas like Science and Geography. ScienceScope (UK-Based) has successfully shown the way with 2 IOT@Schools projects in the UK and in Singapore. [Editor's Note: Great points! We'll add to this to the existing RQ1 topic "Networked Objects" which encapsulates IoT]

Humanoid Robots [Editor's Note: Nice links. These will be useful for the discussions on existing RQ1 topic Robotics]

Ubiquitous access to wifi
Google's Project Loon balloons travel approximately 20 km above the Earth’s surface in the stratosphere. Winds in the stratosphere are stratified, and each layer of wind varies in speed and direction. Project Loon uses software algorithms to determine where its balloons need to go, then moves each one into a layer of wind blowing in the right direction. By moving with the wind, the balloons can be arranged to form one large communications network. Much of the world still is still not connected. Giving people in developing nations the opportunity to join in on our Global discussions and innovations will change how things are done in the world today.- lisagustinelli lisagustinelli Apr 26, 2016 Agree - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler May 1, 2016- davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 26, 2016 - arjana.blazic arjana.blazic May 1, 2016. - shafika.isaacs shafika.isaacs May 1, 2016I agree with Arjana. Microsoft's experiment with TV White Spaces are also worth exploring. (Editor's Note: Very interesting! We will move these discussions to existing RQ1 topic Wireless Power. We also encourage you to check out Mesh Networks, too -- another compelling way to get everyone connected.)

- adrian_lim adrian_lim May 1, 2016 This new software can now hold conversations...even with students. We are on the verge of a new virtual assistance–Mr or Ms Bot. Currently, the chatbot usually 'respond' rather than 'mould' the conversation. However, this formula is about to change. Definitely, a topic to follow. Here is one recent article: [Editor's Note: Adding to the discussions of existing RQ1 topic Virtual Assistants.]

Combined with Existing RQ3 Trends

With Makerspaces as a Digital Strategy, I think we're overdue for making STEM/STEAM a topic on the list. Don't get me wrong, it should still be a trend too! - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 6, 2016 Diito! I concur. We are creating a district team to create our vision for what is STEM and how do we support it. While some schools created a unique identity around STEM, we value that all of our schools are providing enriching science, math instruction to support any graduate with skills to be successful in STEM related careers. We are increasing classroom learning opportunities so that we partner with community organizations and business partners and even our school board asks us for an annual report on how are we doing supporting learners to be prepared for STEM-related careers. Our district education foundation is creating a database to connect teacher project requests with local community and businesses. Last week we hosted a community event to "Turn up the volume" and increase the partnerships. - mac65k mac65k Apr 8, 2016 Same here, our District is opening a STEM school and the question around is why isn't this concept/curriculum/approach applied to all our schools in the district? - dsilva dsilva Apr 9, 2016- giselle.santos giselle.santos Apr 18, 2016 I have to totally agree, especially since our school has created a STEAM curriculum inspired by the Maker Movement. But it goes beyond making. It also looks at creative learning in a broader sense, and technology is definitely an integral part of it.- cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Apr 23, 2016 [Editor's Note: Added to existing RQ3 trend "Rise of STEAM Learning." This was featured in our 2015 K-12 report.]

Student Agency, Digitally Driven
A host of learning platforms are beginning to provide students with the tools to drive their own learning forward, linking what they are learning with their own aspirations, and making that ownership and drive part of the formal accountability and measurements of learning. Summit Schools is doing this through their basecamp platform, where students set goals, use playlists to master specific content and skills, and self-assess their progress against their personal goals. AltSchool is doing something similar for students at younger ages. In the UK, the Aspiration Academies are making student agency the core not only of their pedagogy, but of their school culture and system. This is supported by students "My Aspirations Action Plan": - a portfolio system that links learning to goals. - maria maria Apr 22, 2016 [Editors' Notes: Great points! We are adding them to existing RQ3 trend "Shift from Students as Consumers to Creators"]

Learning Spaces. Something I don't see addressed above, but has been a prominent leitmotif at almost every conference lately (especially at SXSW, InfoComm, FETC) is the notion of redesigning learning spaces; We are seeing a continued push toward the transformation of classroom learning spaces, with an emphasis on collaboration. Some innovatove ideas in this field from theTeaching and Learning Technologies Program at Harvard; see podcast here acarter- acarter acarter Apr 28, 2016 Cool look at how this might look in a foreign language class: Students could learn Chinese “using a large HDMI monitor and High Definition sound system, along with a web connection…[and instructors] could take them on virtual field trips once a month, wearing a wen camera that shows students sites, such as the Wall of China” while also allowing them to practice their Chinese with native speakers. acarter- acarter acarter Apr 28, 2016+1 for me. Learning spaces and incorporating mobility in those spaces seems very popular for the next few years. - matt.harris matt.harris Apr 30, 2016 Agree! - arjana.blazic arjana.blazic May 1, 2016 See its prominence in the 2016 NETP. - len.scrogan Mar 31, 2016 See this: Huddle Up Meko.pdf. I wrote on the topic, with many useful links andwhitepapers. - len.scrogan len.scrogan Apr 11, 2016 I agree! This is just as important to learning as the curriculumitself, and goes beyondmakerspaces. - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Apr 23, 2016 Fully concur. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Apr 24, 2016 - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 25, 2016 One also cannot go past the work of Professor Stephen Heppell Professor Heppell has been a strong advocate for learning envronments that reflect learning in a digital age. - peter.lelong peter.lelong Apr 27, 2016 [Editor's Note: Added to discussions for existing RQ3 trend "Redesigning Learning Spaces."]

Combined with Existing RQ4 Challenges

Computational Thinking
I have noticed that in my part of the world there has been a wake of the term “Computational Thinking” used in the K12 context. It covers the ability to produce it-based solutions not only to be a consumer of these. Often it is part of the STEM (or STEAM) curriculum and involving technologies as Games, Drones, Robotics, APPs and Microprocessors as Raspberry Pi, Arduino or the new BBC Micro-bit. I suggest that we consider making it a new topic covering some of the areas mentioned above - claus.gregersen claus.gregersen Apr 10, 2016 [[user:davidwdeeds|1460334298] - cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Apr 23, 2016 I would also include 'bots'. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Apr 24, 2016 Computational thinking is part of the new ISTE student standards refresh that will be released in June. - kstubbs kstubbs Apr 27, 2016 The Australian Digital Technologies curriculum also focuses on computational thinking as well as design thinking and systems thinking. - peter.lelong peter.lelong Apr 27, 2016 - adrian_lim adrian_lim May 1, 2016 [Editor's Note: Adding this to the challenge discussion on "Teaching Complex Thinking."]

Personalized Learning
This was THE topic at ASU GSV this year. Everyone including Bill Gates was talking about it. The technology is finally at the point that this is possible. - mrskeeler mrskeeler May 1, 2016 [Editor's Note: We agree! We're adding this observation to existing RQ4 challenge "Personalizing Learning.]

Added to RQ3 as New Trend

Outsourcing Technology Training
Outsourcing and training tech talent. Offering opportunities to the poorest of poor in the area of educational programming to tap into minds outside our university system. Andela is doing this: lisagustinelli lisagustinelli Apr 26, 2016

I would agree that Programming/Coding is a big miss from the list this year, especially given its growth in the last couple of years. - Larry Larry Apr 6, 2016 I think so, too. - kathyschrock kathyschrock Apr 8, 2016 And seeing how our students are connecting programming/ coding to their math lessons and to how this applies to real world jobs, our learners have been connecting to coders and programmers - mac65k mac65k Apr 8, 2016 through a free site: Neprisagree- jmorrison jmorrison Apr 8, 2016 Agreed - crompton crompton Apr 9, 2016 Totally agree - the CoderDojo movement here in Ireland has really taken off - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler May 1, 2016 Agreed - mporter mporter Apr 10, 2016Agree!- cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Apr 23, 2016 Absolutely agree! It may be a trend for several years in the developed countries, however, in developing countries it's a relatively new direction or totaly new one, depending on the country. I am in Hanoi, Vietnam these days and I ran a Coding workshop for middle school students and the responses were outstanding, both in the enthusiasm, motivation and the "quick learning" of the coding language. I used CodeMonkey, which is a game for coding. - guyl guyl Apr 23, 2016 Yes, add. And also, let's delete a few courses/topics/to-cover items, maybe even subjects from the curriculum. Examples: math needs to beredesigned,why teach just the essay, where are presentation skills, game-based learning, etc. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Apr 24, 2016 Interdisciplinary approach. - arjana.blazic arjana.blazic May 1, 2016 Agree that codingismajor focus...and White House initiative gives a policy frame also. - keith.krueger keith.krueger Apr 25, 2016 completely agree and I added in such thoughts for Q2 "trends" - it's super important to get this included in this year's report - kstubbs kstubbs Apr 27, 2016 Also completely agree with the need to support programming/coding across the curriculum. Code Club Australia has been actively working in schools here with students embracing the challenges. Blockly and Scratch are the preferred introductory coding models we use in Primary schools here with a move towards Python in the secondary years. Grok Learning [Editor's Note: This was added to RQ3 as new trend "Rise of Coding as a Literacy."]

Added to RQ4 as New Challenge

Interoperability and Integration of Technology
It may be out of vogue, and not a strict edtech issue, but Interoperability and Integration need to start making their way into the overall discussions about how we integrate technology in the classroom, school, and district. There are many technologies and systems that are listed here all as an end point of the integration of technology into education. We have AR and Virtual Reality, and for the most part, they should go together, but don't because the systems and tech aren't compatible. We talk about makerspaces with our 3D printers, but have drones, robots, and other systems that should be there but aren't because it is a whole different set of tools to work with each technology. There there is tying together all the online, blended, mobile, and open learning systems, which bring a separate set of headaches. And on top of the we need to manage the devices and networks that allow access to all of this. We need to look at the linkages between the technologies and where they are headed.- alex.podchaski alex.podchaski May 1, 2016 [Editor's Note: This reads more like a challenge and will be newly added to RQ4.]

Other Insights

With Virtual Worlds back as a topic, I suppose I should be satisfied. ;) I'm tempted to suggest Bite-Sized or Micro Learning as a separate topic, because of its implications for Just in Time PD and other trends/challenges, but maybe Mobile Learning has everything covered. Should Ambient Intelligence be a separate topic? Maybe it's sufficiently covered via Telepresence and the various Virtual topics: And...Networked Objects is the new name for the Internet of Things, right? Synonymous with Digital Mesh? Hearables are certainly in the Wearables category. Do we need an X-Based Computing topic to cover stuff like Gesture-Based Computing? - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 4, 2016 Bite-sized learning has been around for a long time (depending on the country-UK first) but this should be covered beyond mobile devices. Just to confirm we are talking about the same thing, bite-size learning is information passed on to the learner via videos, text and other media. - crompton crompton Apr 9, 2016 the Internet of things is definitely building up interest - crompton crompton Apr 9, 2016 Agree - jon.k.price jon.k.price Apr 29, 2016- alex.podchaski alex.podchaski May 1, 2016

The Google expditions project using Google cardboard looks very promising. I see this as having great potential and much to offer as new expeditions are created peter.lelong peter.lelong Apr 27, 2016

I'd like to oh-so-humbly suggest that Games-Based Learning be returned to the list. Agreed. Tremendous uptick on this topic at all recent conferences, and new players hitting the software market.- len.scrogan len.scrogan Apr 11, 2016 I agree that the most questions I heard about last years report was why games/gamification was "dropped" from the trends. - keith.krueger keith.krueger Apr 25, 2016 ditto from me - kstubbs kstubbs Apr 27, 2016 New grading practices in response to blended, GBL and online learning. So now that we've gone this way we must think about how exactly are we going to assess students. Yes there is a built in type of leveling and self-assessment, but the discussion must be, how do we know what and how students have learned?- lisagustinelli lisagustinelli Apr 26, 2016 There's a huge uptick in games as assessment/"playful assessment" - the role of games and game features around formative assessment - kstubbs kstubbs Apr 27, 2016 I too agree that this is an area which should be promoted - peter.lelong peter.lelong Totally agree - we used Minecraft as a way of engaging children in the centenary of our nation and it was really popular ( ) - deirdre.butler deirdre.butler May 1, 2016
Or maybe just adding Programming/Coding as a topic would be better. GBL might be stuck overall, but offerings such as Microsoft's Minecraft Education Edition might give it a push: I'm talking about kids developing games via geeky-cool tools such as GameGuru: Sure, there's been Game Salad, Game Maker, etc., but now we're talkin' drag-and-drop 3D environments and interaction that even little munchkins can handle. Think of it as Unity Lite. ;) Of course, we won't show parents and administrators the FPS demos of avatars blowing each other away with Uzis. ;) As for students playing games, the "discoveries" re: games helping special needs kids just might get things moving again. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 5, 2016.I agree with David. I also have seen a new surge in this direction here in Brazil. It fell off the list before we had time to catch up with it...- cristiana.mattos cristiana.mattos Apr 23, 2016 +1 for me- matt.harris matt.harris Apr 30, 2016 Indeed, place the focus on students as games developers rather than just players, which is in line with students as content creators. - arjana.blazic arjana.blazic May 1, 2016Agreed - alex.podchaski alex.podchaski May 1, 2016

Real-World Add-Ons. I hesitated before suggesting this, because (a) maybe they fall under Makerspaces and (b) I don't know how widespread they are. But "folks are talkin'" about iPad and other real-world add-ons. Maybe they're Games-Based Learning?? Like the ones from Osmo: Real-world stuff like blocks that kids can use to supplement their iPad app. - davidwdeeds davidwdeeds Apr 6, 2016

CTE courses as apart of STEM
As the discussion on preparing students to be "Career and College Ready" increases, there is now a demand made on schools on how this can be applied in their classrooms. CTE has long been around and most of these courses are funded through the Carl Perkins Grant from the federal government. With STEM, the implications for these courses are tremendous because these CTE courses provide the practical application of STEM in the classroom setting. Courses such as Autoshop should be associated with Physics or Chemistry and Geometry, while Woodshop would be associated with Geometry, CAD and Physics. Chemistry or Biology and Basic Math courses should also be taught as student take Family Consumer Science class (Food Services) and Robotics should incoporate Algebra 1 and Physics. These combination of courses applies the theory of these science and math courses to the application of these CTE courses. As the demand for more STEM like jobs in the market place increases, the need for students to not only understand the abstract and the concrete becomes important.
- spaul6414 spaul6414 May 1, 2016Sandra Paul